Reforming methanol to electricity in a high temperature pem fuel cell. Dynamic modeling and control issues on a methanol reforming. A novel palladiumbased catalyst has been developed for use in a miniature fuel cell power source for portable applications, incorporating a polymer electrolyte membrane pem fuel cell. The behavior in the cmr was compared to that in a fixedbed reactor fbr at the same experimental conditions. The main laws governing the steam reforming process are extended to a wider range of alcohols. Onsite hydrogen generation by steam methane reforming. Dynamic modeling and control issues on a methanol reforming unit for hydrogen production and use in a pem fuel cell dimitris ipsakis1,2, spyros voutetakis1, panos seferlis3, simira papadopoulou1,4 1chemical process engineering research institute c. The parameters temperature, carrier gas flow rate, and feed ratio were investigated to better understand the separation effect of hydrogen in the cmr on the. Function and reactions of reformed fuel cells rfcs work much the same as other fuel cells, except that hydrogen is produce in a separate location, called a reformer, and then injected into the fuel cell.
A simpler system design, with the potential for lowvolume, lightweight packaging. In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst includes a sulfurabsorbent material. Steam reformers, reforming systems, fuel cell systems and methods of using the reforming catalysts are also disclosed. Nov 27, 2012 a nonsyngas direct steam reforming route is investigated for the conversion of methanol to hydrogen and carbon dioxide over a cuzngaox catalyst at 150200 c. The limitations of partial oxidation and steam reforming of methanol for the hydrogen production for pem fuel cell could be overcome using osrm and can be performed autothermally with idealized reaction stoichiomatry.
Most of the methanol steam reforming catalysts contain noble metals, copper, or their alloys supported on inorganic materials. Box 880 morgantown, west virginia 265070880 november 2004. This is in contrast to direct fuel cells where the hydrocarbon fuel is injected directly in to the fuel cell. The reformate gas contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and residual water and methanol as. Comparative analysis of onboard methane and methanol. Abstractadvances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. Fuel cells convert chemical energy to direct current electrical energy without intermediate steps i. The fuel cell is the primary power source fueled by methanol, while a small supplementary battery provides the critical support functions, such as dynamic load response. Steam reforming or steam methane reforming is a method for producing syngas hydrogen and carbon monoxide by reaction of hydrocarbons with water. The performance of these reactors is compared in terms of quality and quantity of h 2 production for fuel cell application.
Smallscale steam reforming units to supply fuel cells are currently the subject of research and development, typically involving the reforming of methanol, but other fuels are also being considered such as propane, gasoline, autogas, diesel fuel, and ethanol. High purity hydrogen from coalderived methanol has been produced and testing with a nexa system pem ballard fuel cell has been completed. Crosslinked advent tps meas employed for fuel cell. The reaction schemes considered in this work are the methanol steam reforming sr reaction and the reverse water gasshift rwgs reaction. Steam reforming of methanol for fuel cell applications. Aiways unveils gumpert rg nathalie methanol fuel cell. The major difference is that in the dmfc the fuel supplied to the anode of the cell is not gaseous hydrogen but methanol in the liquid form. Meanwhile, compared to other feedstocks, methanol exploitation shows various advantages as a hydrogen carrier for fuel cell applications and, namely, it can be produced from renewable sources and the reforming reaction occurs at relatively low temperatures, ca. Hydrogen, which is the fuel for the cell, is produced in a ceramic microreactor via the catalytic reaction of methanol steam reforming. Methane reforming reactions 1 and 2 may have also played a role in the cell operation, but only after.
In this work, the methanol steam reforming catalyst was considered into the anodic compartment of a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell htpemfc, where reforming and electrochemical. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles. Figure 312 comparison of stateoftheart single cell direct methanol fuel cell. Reformed methanol fuel cell rmfc or indirect methanol fuel cell imfc systems are a subcategory of protonexchange fuel cells where, the fuel, methanol ch 3 oh, is reformed, before being fed into the fuel cell. Methanol steam reforming for hydrogen generation via. In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst further includes at least one of chromium oxide and calcium aluminate. Mems fuel cell system integrated with a methanol reformer for a portable power source.
In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst includes zinc oxide as an active component. The key issues of integrated operation of fuel cell with methanol reformer are the selection of catalysts and reactors for methanol reforming since temperature cycling and mechanical vibration are inevitable to supply onboard hydrogen for fuel cells in automotive application. Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology download polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology ebook pdf or read online books in pdf, epub, and mobi format. Thermodynamic analysis for quantifying fuel cell grade h2. Nonsyngas direct steam reforming of methanol to hydrogen. The reforming of methanol requires temperatures of 2000c or higher, while the reforming of ethanol or hydrocarbons requires temperatures 4500c. Methanol steam reforming catalysts, and steam reformers and fuel cell systems incorporating the same. Mar 20, 20 abstract steam reforming of methanol in. Hydrogen production for fuel cells via reforming of coal. Transport phenomena in a steammethanol reforming microreactor with internal heating. A quasidirect methanol fuel cell system based on blend. The methanol can react directly at the cell electrode without the need for external reforming. Catalysts for the steam reforming and electrochemical.
Principles of direct methanol fuel cells for portable and. This discussion will address external reforming fuel processors only. Us7736404b2 methanol steam reforming catalysts, steam. Fuel processors are being developed to allow a wide range of commercial fuels suitable for stationary, vehicle, and military applications. The main purpose of this technology is hydrogen production. Us20060236607a1 methanol steam reforming catalysts. Methanol reforming fuel cell system in chinese market youtube. Pdf synergetic integration of a methanol steam reforming. Methanol steam reforming to hydrogen in a carbon membrane. Methanol steam reforming for fuel cell applications. This article is from sensors basel, switzerland, volume 11. Oct 26, 2006 in this study, the methanol steam reforming reaction was carried out in a carbon membrane reactor cmr for hydrogen production. Cecltalian fuel cell workshop in taormina, sicily, in june 1987.
A bench station has been developed in order to accommodate all the inherent steam reforming equipment. Demonstrated hydrogen production from steam reforming and autothermal reforming of coalderived methanol. Pdf hydrogen production from steammethanol reforming. Thermodynamic analysis for quantifying fuel cell grade h 2 production by methanol. However, the direct methanol fuel cell dmfc functions by oxidis. Methanol reforming fuel cell system in chinese market. A direct methanol fuel cell dmfc is an electrochemical cell that generates electricity based on the oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. Installing a methanol reformer fuel cell from horizon duration. Performance and endurance of a high temperature pem fuel. Performance and endurance of a high temperature pem fuel cell. In this study, the methanol steam reforming reaction was carried out in a carbon membrane reactor cmr for hydrogen production. Technological aspects of an auxiliary power unit with internal. Aalborg universitet experimental evaluation of a ptbased.
This study performs energetic and exergetic comparisons between the steam methane reforming and steam methanol reforming technologies combined with htpemfc and a carbon captureliquefaction system for use in hydrogenfueled ships. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the doe reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. Hydrogen for fuel cells from methanol reforming methanol. Department of energy office of fossil energy national energy technology laboratory p. A nonsyngas direct steam reforming route is investigated for the conversion of methanol to hydrogen and carbon dioxide over a cuzngaox catalyst. However, with a welltowheel efficiency of 22%, the indirect methanol system was inferior to direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The direct methanol fuel cell dmfc is a polymer membrane fuel cell, similar in concept to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell discussed in chapter 4. Direct methanol fuel cell an overview sciencedirect topics. The reaction is strongly endothermic consumes heat. Pdf performance enhancement by optimizing the reformer for an. Future directions demonstrate and characterize operation of a hydrogen fuel cell fed by coalderived methanol.
A new palladiumbased catalyst for methanol steam reforming. A study of ethanol and methanol as a fuel for onboard hydrogen generation by steam reforming on copperbased. Catalytic study of copper based catalysts for steam. Methanol reforming our different reforming layouts can be tailor made to meet the requirements of the client without compromising on reliability. Ive seen a lot of fuel cells that run on methanol, but the igen data sheet pdf was the first time ive seen a company make specific promises about both power output and fuel consumption. The parameters temperature, carrier gas flow rate, and feed ratio were investigated to better understand the separation effect of hydrogen in. Request pdf reforming methanol to electricity in a high temperature pem fuel cell in this paper we demonstrate for the first time a compact power unit, where. Denmark opens eus first methanol fuel pump carsvans use serenergy rmfc technology as range extender and cri methanol as fuel increasing range of battery powered vehicles from 200 to 800 kilometers april 2019, beijing auto show. Methanol and fuel cells fuel cell today, the leading.
Hydrogen production for pem fuel cells via oxidative steam. Performance and endurance of a high temperature pem fuel cell operated on methanol reformate samuel simon araya, ionela florentina grigoras, fan zhou, soren juhl andreasen, soren knudsen k. A direct methanol fuel cell offers a number of advantages, including. Rmfc systems offer advantages over direct methanol fuel cell dmfc systems including higher efficiency, smaller cell stacks, no water management, better operation at low. This report covers the time period of january 1 march 31, 2005.
The direct methanol fuel cell dmfc is a polymer membrane fuel cell, similar in concept. It must offer significant benefits, as it has not only inspired the development of a type of fuel cell dedicated to its use the direct methanol fuel cell dmfc but is also becoming increasingly popular as a source of hydrogen for systems based on proton exchange membrane fuel cells pemfc. Significant influence of cuttingedge plasma technology on catalytic properties and performance of cuoznoal 2 o 3 zro 2 nanocatalyst used in methanol steam reforming for fuel cell grade hydrogen production. Apr 24, 2017 methanol reforming fuel cell system in chinese market. Fuel cell guide reformed fuel cells indirect fuel cells. An aqueous methanol solution of low molarity acts as the reducing agent that traverses the anode flow field. Methanol is an excellent hydrogen carrier fuel, packing more hydrogen in this simple alcohol molecule than can be found in liquified hydrogen. Methanol steam reforming has been characterized using different catalyst formulas and reformers, in order to provide fuel cell grade hydrogen. Rmfc systems offer advantages over direct methanol fuel cell dmfc systems including higher efficiency, smaller cell stacks, no water management, better operation at low temperatures, and storage at subzero temperatures because methanol is a liquid from 97. Pdf methanol steam reforming for hydrogen production. A directmethane fuel cell with a ceriabased anode nature.
For automotive power applications, cost constraints proved the indirect system superior to the direct methanol system. Methanol steam reforming for hydrogen production chemical. Quantified the differences between coalderived and fuel cell grade methanol. A methanol hybrid fuel cell vehicle mhfcv is equipped with an electric powertrain with methanol fuel cell and batteries as separate, but synergistic, power sources. Methanol and other alternative fuels must be converted reformed to a hydrogenrich gas for such fuels to be used in fuel cells. The direct methanol fuel cell dmfc has been considered as the ideal fuel cell. Fuel cell testing with reformate via steam reforming, 5.
Technical advances improve the potential for a fuel cell. Significant investigations aimed at further improving methanol reforming to hydrogen, whether focused on onboard or stationary applications, are under way. Catalytic study of copper based catalysts for steam reforming. Click download or read online button to polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology book pdf for free now. It investigates the different parts of the carbon cycle from a methanol and fuel cell perspective. The core of innovation of irmfc is the incorporation of a methanol reforming.
Reformed methanol fuel cell rmfc or indirect methanol fuel cell imfc systems are a. Nonsyngas direct steam reforming of methanol to hydrogen and. Reduction of co is essential before feeding to the fuel cell. Another way of using methanol in a fuel cell is by steam reforming it over a catalyst to hydrogen. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and. It explores the renewable ways of obtaining methanol and its use in efficient energy systems for a net zeroemission carbon cycle, with a special focus on fuel cells. Gas chromatography of reformate via autothermal reforming, 4. Catalysts surface area and pore volume were determined using n 2 adsorptiondesorption method. An internal reforming methanol fuel cell irmfc takes advantage of the aforementioned features of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell htpemfc and represents a high potential technological option for portable and offgrid applications.
High yields of hydrogen production from methanol steam. In some embodiments, the methanol reforming catalysts are not active at temperatures below 275 c. Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell. Us20060236607a1 methanol steam reforming catalysts, steam. The required space for the primary fuel and capturedliquefied co2 and the fuel cost have also been investigated to find the more advantageous system for ship. Our proven prereformer is coupled with the most optimal reforming configuration for the individual plant. Pdf internal reforming methanol fuel cell irmfc has potential applications in portable or stationary power supply. Catalytic processes for clean hydrogen production from hydrocarbons pdf. Steam reforming of methanol for fuel cell grade hydrogen. Technological aspects of an auxiliary power unit with. Eliminating the requirement for fuel reforming andor onboard hydrogen storage. Fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel to produce clean and efficient electricity that can power cars, trucks, buses, ships, cell phone towers, homes and businesses.981 892 1526 672 1394 1176 1141 666 750 612 1352 81 582 68 50 599 1051 547 1063 606 272 176 1391 1319 1541 711 76 1129 1583 1277 446 1034 295 1156 796 776 697 6 175 951 453 53